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2019年catti笔译二级试题:贸易主义政策

来源:考试资料网   2019-09-12   【

  Many countries have adopted the principle of sustainable development, it can combatenvironment deterioration in air quality, water quality and production in developingcountries. Health education serves as a viable role for every member in the world.But some argue that it's a vague idea, some organizations may use it in its owninterests, whether environmental or economic is the nature of interests. Others arguethat sustainable development in developing countries overlook the local customs,habitude and people.

  Whereas interdependence is desirable during times of peace, war necessitatescompetition and independence. Tariffs and importation limits strengthen a county'seconomic vitality while potentially weakening the economies of its enemies.Moreover, protectionism in the weapons industry is highly desirable during suchcircumstances because reliance on another state for armaments can be fatal.

  For the most part, economists emphasize the negative effects of protectionism. Itreduces international trade and raises prices for consumers. In addition, domesticfirms that receive protection have less incentive to innovate. Although free trade putsuncompetitive firms out of business, the displaced workers and resources areultimately allocated to other areas of the economy

  Imposing quotas is a method used to protect trade, since foreign companies cannotship more products regardless of how low they set their prices. Countries that hopeto help a new industry thrive locally often impose quotas on imported goods. Theybelieve that such restrictions allow entities in the new industry to develop their owncompetitive advantages and produce the products efficiently. Developing countries often use this argument to justify their restrictions on foreign goods.

  Protectionism's purpose is usually to create jobs for domestic workers. Companiesthat operate in industries protected by quotas hire workers locally. Anotherdisadvantage of quotas is the reduction in the quality of products in the absence ofcompetition from foreign companies. Without compettion, local firms are less likely toinvest in innovation and improve their products and services. Domestic sellers don'thave an incentive to enhance efficiency and lower their prices, and under suchconditions, consumers eventually pay more for products and services they couldreceive from foreign competitors. As local companies lose competitiveness, theybecome pressured to outsource jobs. In the long run, increasing protectionism commonly leads to layoffs and economic slowdown.

  【参考译文】为应对广大发展中国家所面临的环境恶化问题,保障空气质量、水质和生产安全,许多国家纷纷制定可持续发展战略。实践证明,卫生教育对推动世界各国的发展具有切实可行性。但有人认为,可持续发展的概念不够明晰,沦为部分组织谋取自身利益的工具,置环境或经济负面效应于不顾。还有人认为,发展中国家在实施可持续发展战略过程中,时常忽略民风、民俗和民生问题。

  在和平年代,各国之间相互依存、共谋发展,战争时期,各国又相互竞争,追求独立。关税和进口限制政策有助于增强本国经济活力,同时削弱敌国的经济增长潜力。再者,战争时期,武器制造行业采取保护主义,可避免对外过度依赖,保护本国免遭受致命打击。

  经济学家多半强调保护主义的负面效应,认为保护主义不仅削弱了国际贸易,还抬升了消费价格。不仅如此,在贸易保护伞下受到恩荫的本土企业往往因此丧失了创新动力。在自由贸易的浪潮下,尽管缺乏竞争力的公司多以破产收场,但因此失业的工人和闲置的资源,依然可以在其他经济领域找到用武之地。设定限额是贸易保护方式的一-种,在此情况下,不论商品定价多低,国外企业得以进驻市场的产品数量始终有限。各国通常会对进口产品采取限额政策,以推动本国新兴产业的发展。经济学家认为,此类限制政策有助于新兴产业实体充分提升自身竞争力及商品生产效率。

  贸易主义政策通常旨在创造本士就业岗位。受益于限额政策的业内公司通常只雇佣当地工人。限额消除了外国对手的竞争压力,致使国内产品的质量有所下降,这是限额政策的另一缺点。缺少竞争对手的刺激,本土企业往往不再大力投入创新,产品与服务质量也会大打折扣。国内商家既不注重提升生产效率、也不推出价格优惠措施,久而久之,消费者们宁愿花费更多钱财,去购买国外商家更胜一筹的产品与服务。 而本土企业- -旦丧失竞争力,就不得不外包产品和服务。从长远来看,保护主义盛行,通常会导致企业裁员,引起经济衰退。

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